Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd World Chemistry Conference Dallas, Texas, USA.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Jochen Balbach

Martin-Luther-University, Germany

Keynote: Conformational plasticity of the GPCR activating parathyroid hormone

Time : 09:30-10:00

Chemistry 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Jochen Balbach photo
Biography:

Jochen Balbach has completed his PhD in Organic Chemistry at the University of Munich, Germany, before he moved to the University of Oxford, UK, and later University of Bayreuth, Germany, to develop NMR methods to follow protein folding reactions at molecular resolution. Since 2004, he is working as a Professor for Biophysics at the University of Halle, and interested in the Structural Biology of proteins mainly studied by NMR spectroscopy, the Biophysics of protein folding, and working on many systems including amyloid forming peptides and proteins, chaperones, GPCRs, ankyrin-repeat proteins, membrane shaping proteins, crystallins, and their post-translational modifications.

Abstract:

The parathyroid hormone (PTH) from glands controls the blood calcium and phosphate level via its G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). PTH, an 84-residue peptide, is intrinsically disordered and adopts an -helical conformation for N-terminal residues 15-34 upon binding to the extra cellular domain of the receptor. These residues form the core cross- structure in fast forming amyloid fibrils, which is possibly a storage form of the PTH hormone and thus a functional amyloid conformation. NMR-detected phosphorylation at the N-terminus of PTH by cell-lysate of parathyroid glands still allows hormone binding to the ectodomain but abolishes GPCR activation in vivo. The same inhibition can be achieved by a Zn2+ anthracenyl-terpyridine complex binding to the N-terminus of PTH. PTH (1-34) is already an approved drug against osteoporosis, where this Zn2+ coordination complex now allows to control receptor activation not by targeting the receptor itself but at the level of its agonist. The N-terminal residues of PTH thus can adopt various functional conformations depending on the local environment including binding partners, posttranslational modifications, or amyloid fibrils, and we found a conformation selective metal coordination complex to inhibit receptor activation.

Chemistry 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Zdzisław M Migaszewski photo
Biography:

Zdzisław M Migaszewski is a Full Professor at the Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Poland and a Chairman of the Scientific Board of the Polish Geological Institute in Warsaw. He has graduated from the Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw. He received his Ph.D. and DSc degrees from the AGH University of Technology in Cracow, and in 2009 he was awarded a Professorship of Geology. His key interest is Trace Element and Stable Isotope Geochemistry, Mineralogy, Sedimentary Petrology and Environmental Analytical Chemistry. He has conducted some projects in close collaboration with the US Geological Survey in Denver and State University of New Mexico in Albuquerque.

Abstract:

Due to potential toxicity to organisms, arsenic (As) has been of great concern in many countries, especially in south-eastern and eastern Asia. The most significant source of this metalloid is some rock formations that undergo weathering releasing As to different environmental compartments. However, this process is distinctly expedited in acid mine drainage areas, where the highest concentrations of As are noted. The principal objective of the Wiśniówka case study (south-central Poland) was to compare concentrations of As in three acid pit lakes and strongly acidic seeps and pools with host rock series using the ICP-QMS and mineralogical methods. The last mentioned encompassed optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and electron microprobe (EMP). Of the three acid pit lakes, the Podwiśniówka located in the eastern part of the mining area, revealed the highest contents of As in the broad range (7.02 to 22.2 mg/L) induced by evaporation or influxes of rainwater/meltwater. The main source of this metalloid is Upper Cambrian As-rich pyritiferous sandstone-shale series that crops out particularly at the Podwiśniówka quarry. However, the highest levels of As (370 mg/L) were found in strongly acid pools and seeps occurring at the foot of tailings piles composed of Podwiśniówka waste material. The mineralogical examinations indicate that pyrite (FeS2) is the only As-rich sulfide mineral in this area whereas the other sulfide minerals, for example galena (PbS), sphalerite (ZnS), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), covellite (CuS), occur only in trace amounts in the form of tiny inclusions of 0.001–0.015 mm in diameter. Arsenic is not uniformly distributed within a pyrite matrix, but forms alternating As-rich and As-depleted bands. Another specific feature of this pyrite is also its size. This predominantly forms tiny grains and framboids 0.0X–0.00X mm across, thus additionally favoring rapid oxidation of this mineral.

Chemistry 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Jianyong Wang photo
Biography:

Jianyong (Jerry) Wang received his Ph.D. from the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Medical University of Ohio (Toledo, OH). After postdoctoral studies at University of Michigan Medical Center, Jerry began his industry career as a pharmacologist. He is currently a scientist in the Department of Biochemical and Cellular Pharmacology at Genentech. His group supports the therapeutic antibody programs during research and early development phases. His main responsibilities include antibody screening and characterization by in vitro and in vivo studies to select clinical candidates. Dr. Wang has worked in the biopharmaceutical industry for more than fifteen years including ten years at Genentech for biotherapeutics R&D.

Abstract:

Assessing immunogenicity, the propensity of a therapeutic protein product (including antibody drugs) to generate immune responses or to induce immunologically related adverse events, is recommended during the development phase of a biotherapeutic drug. Even though immunogenicity assessment in nonclinical animal studies is not relevant in predicting potential immunogenicity in humans, it can still be very useful in assisting the interpretation of PK/PD/TK study results. This is because, for non-clinical studies, immunogenicity can impact exposure (PK), response (PD & efficacy), and safety (toxicity and adverse events). Thus immunogenicity assessment, i.e. measurement of anti-drug antibodies (ADA), should be evaluated when there is evidence of altered PD activity; unexpected changes in drug exposure in the absence of a PD marker; or evidence of immune-mediated reactions (immune complex disease, vasculitis, anaphylaxis, etc.). In this presentation, several commonly used ADA assay formats and technology platforms will be reviewed. Key assay design elements and assay development procedures, including approaches that improve ADA assay drug tolerance, will be discussed in detail. We will also share ADA results from three monkey PK/PD case studies by comparing different ADA assay formats. Lastly, we will recommend fit-for-purpose strategies of ADA assay development and characterization for non-clinical animal studies.

Speaker

Chair

Zdzisław M Migaszewski

Jan Kochanowski Univ., Poland

Speaker

Co-Chair

Jochen Balbach

Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany

Speaker
Biography:

Iason Rusodimos has completed his BS in Electrical Engineering (1976), MS in Electrical Engineering (1977), MS in Math (1983), MS in Physics (1984), all of which are from the Georgia Institute of Technology. Since 1986, he joined the Faculty of Georgia Perimeter College, which has been recently consolidated with Georgia State University, teaching mostly Calculus, Differential Equations, and Linear Algebra courses. In addition to developing various instructional methods associated with STEM education, he has long been interested in effective applications of Math to Science and Engineering. Recently, he has been interested in application of derivatives approach in Science and Engineering, in kinetic processes, as illustrated in this presentation. Major area of research has been solving partial differential equations on a physical or mechanical system associated with elasticity, and on chemical systems of heterogeneous electron-transfer kinetics.

Abstract:

Theoretical expressions for the first, second and third derivatives of voltammetric curves are analytically derived for reversible, quasi-reversible, and irreversible processes under spherical diffusion. The shapes of the curves are analyzed in terms of peak-potentials, peak-currents, and peak-widths, and the differences and ratios among them. The results obtained with spherical electrodes are compared with those with the planar electrodes, which exhibits striking differences between two electrodes. Derived parameters – such as ratios of peak-currents (iap/icp), and ratios of half-peak-widths (Wa½/Wc½), and ratios of the differences in peak potentials (ΔEap/ΔEcp), for various derivatives are analyzed. As electrode sphericity increases, these ratios (i.e., measures of symmetry in the curves) for a quasi-reversible and irreversible electron transfer process approaches to one, which is the same as that for a simple reversible electrode process on a planar electrode. Namely, the asymmetry which was exhibited on planar electrodes for quasi and irreversible processes disappears on a spherical electrode. This suggests that the planar electrode is better suited for kinetic study of slower electron transfer than spherical electrodes for this derivative approach.

Speaker
Biography:

Agnieszka Gałuszka is an Environmental Geochemist specializing in Geochemical background assessment. Her research interests focus on determination of trace elements in different environmental samples (e.g. waters, soils, sediments, plants etc.) and on pinpointing possible sources and the fate of these elements in the environment with the emphasis on anthropogenic pollution. Her publications cover a wide range of topics from case studies on environmental quality oriented issues, acid mine drainage, mineralogy, to green analytical chemistry.

Abstract:

The acid mine drainage areas represent a type of environment enriched in rare earth elements (REE) caused by an increased mobility of REE at a low pH of water and soil. Rare earth elements are not essential to plants and may cause reduced biomass in native plants. A typical total REE concentration in a reference plant is 1131 µg/kg. However, there are substantial differences in REE levels among the plant species. The purpose of this study was to compare the REE concentrations in plant samples collected at different sites in the acid mine drainage area in south-central Poland with typical REE content in plant material and to assess their REE accumulation potential. Twenty-six samples of above-ground parts of four vascular plant species (Juncus effusus, Matricaria chamomilla, Salix alba and Tussilago farfara) and two moss species (Pleurozium schreberi and Drepanocladus aduncus) were collected in 2015 and 2016 in the study area. The samples were rinsed with distilled water, air-dried, ground and digested in a closed microwave system using HNO3 (1:1)/H2O2 solution in the ratio of 8 ml/1 ml. The digested samples were analyzed for REE using ICP-QMS instrument (model ELAN DRC II, PerkinElmer). Accuracy of the measurement was assessed with two plant-matrix reference materials: NIST 1573a (Tomato leaves) and NIST 1575a (Pine needles). Most of the plant samples showed total REE concentrations in the range of 69–3413 µg/kg. Only two moss samples and one sample of vascular plant (T. farfara) were extremely enriched in REE (23, 066-28, 133 µg/kg). The study showed that plants growing in temporary submerged conditions more efficiently took up and accumulated an excessive amount of REE. High levels of REE in moss species showing high ion adsorption/desorption capacities may be important for reclamation of abandoned tailings piles by revegetation or REE recovery.

Ajay Sharma

Fundamental Physics Society, India

Title: Inconsistencies in theoretical analysis of archimedes principle

Time : 12:10-12:35

Speaker
Biography:

Ajay Sharma started his career as Lecturer Physics at DAV College Chandigarh. Currently, he is research scholar ( having passed BSc. And Msc. Degree with first division) at Central University of Himachal Pradesh Dharmashala. His natural field of interest is fundamental law of science. In one of his papers, he had generalized Archimedes Principle from its theoretical calculation which is part of both physical chemistry and basic physics. He has proved systematically that effects of the shape of body and viscosity of fluid are missing from Archimedes Principle. He is trying to confirm his theoretical predictions experimentally at National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi. He has already published about 60 articles in international journals, conferences and peer review scientific magazines. His recent conference was in Moscow in the year 2014. Currently is secretary of the Fundamental Physics Society, Shimla.

Abstract:

The consistency of mathematical equation requires if values of (n-1) variables are given then the value of nth variable can be calculated. The value of nth variable must turn out definite and logical, otherwise, there is serious mathematical inconsistency in the law or equation it is based. The predictions of the equation are experimentally checked for final confirmation. Under some feasible conditions from Archimedes principle in case of completely submerged balloons, the nth variable is not determined if (n-1) variables are given. Under these conditions, for example, the density of material filled inside the balloon (and that of the sheath) is equal to the density of the fluid (say water) in which balloon floats is the same. Under these conditions, the density of the medium (Dm), the volume of the sheath, density of sheath etc. are correctly determined mathematically. But the volume of material filled in the sheath comes out be indeterminate i.e. V =0/0. Thus the principle is generalized i.e. upthrust is proportional to the weight of fluid displaced (U=fVDg). Then repeating the same calculations with identical values of parameters, then exact value of volume filled inside the balloon i.e. V=V is obtained. Thus the generalized form is theoretically justified. Further analysis finds that the where f is the coefficient of proportionality accounts for the shape of body, the viscosity of the medium, the magnitude of medium and body or particle, nature of interactions, surface tension, and other relevant elusive effects etc. Archimedes principle excludes these values. Some specific experiments are suggested to experimentally measure the value of f. Such specific and diverse experiments have not been conducted in the existing literature, which is novelty and significance of the experiments. These experiments have nobility as never reported in the literature; nonetheless, the principle is 2267 years old. The contradictory results from Archimedes principle have been found in ultracentrifugation experiments involving nanoparticles.

Hanseul Kim

Korea Institute of Industrial and Technology

Title: Production of oil and wax blends from fast pyrolysis of plastic wastes using a fluidized bed reactor

Time : 12:35-13:00

Speaker
Biography:

Hanseul Kim has completed his Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering at the Kwangwoon University in Seoul, Korea. He has worked for a Lead frame manufacturing company for 6 months. He has completed his Master’s degree from University of Science and Technology (UST). Currently, he is working for Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH) as a Researcher.

Abstract:

The use of plastics is increasing, and the disposal of plastic waste is becoming a serious problem. Plastic wastes are not only poorly decomposable but also cause various pollution problems. Therefore, effective treatment of waste plastics is needed. In the case of waste plastics whose constituents are not uniform, it is best to make hydrocarbons using pyrolysis reactions.

In this paper, the pyrolysis characteristics of waste plastics were investigated using a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor. First, thermal decomposition characteristics and trends of the waste plastics were analyzed through TGA, elemental analysis, proximity analysis of samples and XRF (X-ray fluorescence) analysis of ash. In the pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor(Fig1), the effects of various reaction parameters, like reaction temperature, the feed rate of waste plastics, and residence time after the reaction was investigated. And the complexed organic compounds between the product oils on the different experimental parameters and a detailed analysis of the oils were also investigated.

Chih-Chieh Hsu

National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan

Title: Interface-Controlled resistive switching behavior of molybdenum oxide semiconductor

Time : 13:50-14:25

Speaker
Biography:

Chih-Chieh Hsu has his expertise in semiconductor process and semiconductor device physics. He has much experience in thin film transistors, resistive memories, and sol-gel processes. He has published 15 SCI journal papers in the past three years. This approach will be applicable to future high-performance semiconductor devices.

Abstract:

Floating gate memory has been widely used in non-volatile data storage, because it has fast data write/read capability, high-capacity storage, low-power consumption, and high endurance. However, recently, resistive random access memory (RRAM) has been proposed to be a new candidate for nonvolatile memory device technology, because it not only has the advantages that are mentioned above but also has a lower production cost than that of a floating gate memory due to its simple metal semiconductor metal (MSM) structure. This study demonstrated a high-performance interface-controlled MoOx RRAM fabricated by using a radio-frequency (RF) sputter. A glass substrate was firstly cleaned by ultrasonic agitation in acetone, ethanol and de-ionized water, respectively. Then, Pt was deposited as a bottom electrode and a molybdenum oxide thin film was subsequently deposited by RF sputtering a MoO3 target at oxygen flow rates of 0, 6, 9, 12,15 sccm. The argon flow rate was 12 sccm, the RF power was 40 W, and the working pressures was 3×10-3 torr. Finally, Al top electrodes were deposited on the MoOx layer by evaporation and patterned by a shadow mask. The MoO3 RRAM exhibits a significant memory window of 102 for 500 operations. The resistive switching mechanism was found to be dominated by formation/dissociation of an interfacial AlOx layer between Al electrode and MoOx active layer. The carrier transport mechanism was also investigated. The morphologies and thicknesses of the MoOx films were measure by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to examine the crystallinity of the MoOx films. A UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the transparency and the optical band gap. chemical structures of MoOx films were clarified by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This approach can be applied to future high-performance RRAM technology.

Biography:

Abstract:

When using a sol-gel process to synthesize semiconductor thin films, toxic solvents and high-temperature sintering processes were usually required. Although toxic solvents are generally chemical active and solutes normally have higher solubilities to these solvents, they are harmful to human bodies and environmentally unfriendly. Besides, high-temperature sintering processes will arise high manufacturing cost, much time consumption and low process compatibility. This study synthesized tin oxide (SnOx) semiconductor thin films by using a sol-gel process. The precursor solution was obtained by using a non-toxic solvent of C2H5OH. After Cl2Sn2, H2O was dissolved in the C2H5OH, this mixed solution was continuously stirred at 80℃ for 24 hours and it was aged at room temperature for 1-2 days. The solution was opaque initially and turned into transparent after stirring and the aging process. A SnOx thin film was deposited on the ITO substrate by using a spin coating process. Then, the deposited SnOx film was cured on a hotplate at 70℃ for 60s to remove the solvent. We also investigated concentration effects on SnOx characteristics. Current-voltage curves of the optimal SnOx thin film exhibit significant bipolar resistive switching behavior and highly stable endurance characteristic. The carrier transport mechanism was also studied. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine chemical structures of the deposited SnOx films. The oxidation number of Sn and concentrations of lattice oxygen and non-lattice oxygen were explored. The crystallinity of the SnOx film was examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was utilized to obtain chemical bonds. A UV-visible spectroscopy was employed to study the transparency and the optical band gap. This approach has advantages of simplicity, low-cost and high throughput, and it can be applied to future flexible electronics. 

Speaker
Biography:

Elham Shafik Aazam has completed her PhD from Sussex University, UK and is a Professor at King Abdulaziz University at the Science College and Chemistry department. She is the Head of the Chemistry department at the female campus. She has published 43 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Natural biodegradable polymeric starch capped Ag-nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by using extract of Dioscorea deltoidea in the presence of starch. UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and digital images were used to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the as prepared AgNPs. The kinetics and morphology of the nano-materials (spherical, rod, triangular, irregular, truncated triangular, hexahedral, mono-ispersed, and aggregated) were discussed in terms of the extract, Ag+ and starch. Iodometric titration was used to confirm the reversible encapsulation of the AgNPs inside the helical structure of amylose. TEM images also suggest that the morphology of the encapsulated AgNPs entirely changes in comparison with the non-encapsulated AgNPs. The starch functionalized AgNPs could be used for drug delivery, with the nucleation and aggregation controlled through fusogenic behaviour.

Speaker
Biography:

Lucas C Grosche has completed his BSc in Chemical Engineering Chemistry at Oswaldo Cruz University, Brazil, and MSc in Chemical Engineering Chemistry at São Paulo University. Currently, he is pursuing his Ph.D. in Technology Materials at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Brazil.

Abstract:

Semi-dry flue gas desulfurization ash (SDA) is a byproduct generated from the desulfurization system of the coal-fired power station. The beneficial reuse application for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and this residue is underutilized. SDA was used as raw material for the synthesis of zeolitic material by alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Different experimental conditions, such as reaction time, temperature, alkali hydroxide concentration and solid/liquid ratio were studied. Raw ash material and synthesis products were characterized by XRD, XRF, particle size analyzer, TG-DTG-DTA and SDA were classified according to Brazilian Environmental Regulations. The results show that SDA has a higher CaO and SO3 content. The major minerals present in SDA are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite, portlandite, gehlenite and sodium carbonate. The size of SDA particles is around 0.399-355.656 µM with a median diameter of 7.63 µM. Thermal behavior of SDA was characterized by the existence of six and four stages under air and inert atmosphere, respectively. SDA can be classified as Class II A (non-dangerous/non-inert) materials. The presence of zeolite hydroxysodalite confirms successful conversion of SDA into zeolitic material after activation in NaOH solutions. Along with the zeolitic product were obtained katoite, hydrocalumite, and Al-substituted tobermorite. All the compounds formed present ionic exchange capacity. SDA utilization minimizes the environmental impact of disposal problems and further enables an application for treatment of wastewater.

Speaker
Biography:

Jianyong (Jerry) Wang received his Ph.D. from the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Medical University of Ohio (Toledo, OH). After postdoctoral studies at University of Michigan Medical Center, Jerry began his industry career as a pharmacologist. He is currently a scientist in the Department of Biochemical and Cellular Pharmacology at Genentech. His group supports the therapeutic antibody programs during research and early development phases. His main responsibilities include antibody screening and characterization by in vitro and in vivo studies to select clinical candidates. Dr. Wang has worked in the biopharmaceutical industry for more than fifteen years including ten years at Genentech for biotherapeutics R&D.

Abstract:

As many of therapeutic biologics (including monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates) enter the frontline of disease treatment, tracking their stability in vivo, is a critical step in development of these therapeutics. Unstable antibody therapeutics (including unstable antibody-drug conjugates) may cause decreased drug activity, fast clearance, increased immunogenicity, and safety issues (toxicities). Non enzyme mediated deamidation is a common protein degradation that normally occurs on asparagine (and to a lesser extent, glutamine residues), resulting in a conversion to aspartic and isoaspartic acids with a mass shift of +0.984 Da. To monitor the deamidation of therapeutic antibodies dosed in vivo, we developed analytical methods with the combination of immunoassay and LC/MS using peptide level MS detection. We further optimized the process and established an automated high throughput method allowing for high fidelity deamidation analysis of human antibodies from in vivo study samples. Similarly, we were also able to characterize the stability of antibody-drug conjugates in vivo, by using the combination of affinity-capture and intact protein MS analysis. These procedures will help to exclude unstable drug candidates at early development phase, and select stable antibody-based therapeutics for clinical applications.

Speaker
Biography:

He completed his Ph.D. at University of Cambridge, the UK in the year of 1980. He is working as Professor, American University of Beirut, Lebanon. His research interests are Membrane fusion in vitro, Plant cell wall biosynthesis, and assembly, Biologically active oligosaccharides.

Abstract:

Biotransformation is an efficient approach for structural alteration of all classes of organic compounds. This technique is effectively employed in green chemistry, particularly in drug discovery and development, as it involves a variety of enzymes during transformation which results in regio-, chemo-, and stereo-selective products. In the current study, biotransformation of an orally active contraceptive drugs, drospirenone and etonogestrel was carried out at pH 7.0 and 26±2°C. Transformation of drospirenone with Cunninghamella elegans resulted in four new metabolites, 14α-hydroxy-drospirenone, 11-oxo-drospirenone, 12-oxo-drospirenone and 11β, 14α-dihydroxy-drospirenone, along with a known metabolite and 11α-hydroxy-drospirenone. While transformation of etonogestrel with Cunninghamella blakesleeana and C. echinulata yielded three new metabolites 6β-hydroxy-11, 22-epoxy-etonogestrel, 11, 22-epoxy-etonogestrel, 10β-hydroxy-etonogestrel, along with two known metabolites 6β-hydroxy-etonogestrel, and 14α-hydroxy-etonogestrel.

Roya Rafiee

Post Doctoral Associate at University of Florida

Title: Small Molecules Approach for Conversion into the Neuronal Lineage

Time : 16:50-17:15

Speaker
Biography:

Roya Rafiee is a Post Doctoral Associate at University of Florida.

Abstract:

Over the past years, manipulation of cell identity to derive a desired organ specific cell type has become a major research interest since efficient reprogramming via forced expression of transcription factors had been achieved. The major aim of these studies is to obtain any somatic cell type that can be used in drug discovery and regenerative medicine, but genetic manipulation of cells by the use of tissue-specific transcription factors poses unknown risks and is therefore associated with safety concerns.

Recent work showed that trans differentiation can be also achieved with a gene-free approach using small,   chemically defined molecules. In my work presented here, it can be shown for the first time that human fibroblast cells can be converted into cells of the dopaminergic lineage with a cocktail of small molecules containing epigenetic modifiers targeting histone acetylation and histone methylation, kinase inhibitors, and a regulator of cAMP levels. The converted fibroblasts exhibit neuron specific gene expression pattern at the mRNA and protein level, and also produced dopamine indicating this fundamental functional property. A crucial part in the protocol is the inhibition of TGFβ, BMP and GSK3β signaling in order to convert fibroblast into the neurons, which could be modulate by the small molecule inhibitor E738. High levels of AKT1 and GSK3β phosphorylation in the absence of CREB activation indicated an important new cross talk between AKT1 and GSK3β signaling for the neuronal lineage. Activation of Chk2 and HSP27 did not differ significantly from non-induced fibroblast, confirming low toxicity of the cocktail used.

Induced fibroblasts did not exhibit a transient progenitor cells phase. On the other hand, postnatal mouse glia cells treated with a similar cocktail of small molecules as used for fibroblast trans differentiation, were converted into semi-functional neurons through a proliferative, “de-differentiated”, stage via adding the small molecules BIX. We observed that de-differentiated glia cells possessed neuronal stem cell like properties indicated by gene expression, self-renewal and neurerosphere generation properties, other neuronal specific markers and half Na+ channel current.

Taken together, the results presented here clearly show that using well defined combinations of small chemical molecules can be sufficient to obtain functional neurons of the dopaminergic lineage by reprogramming from human fibroblast. Moreover, with minor adjustments, a similar cocktail of small molecules was sufficient to obtain semi-functional neurons starting with postnatal glia cells without the introduction of exogenous genetic factors.

Biography:

Abstract:

liver fibrosis is the wound healing response to a variety of acute or chronic stimuli, for instance, viral infection, toxins, and metabolic diseases. The pattern of hepatic stellate cell activation provides an important framework to pinpoint sites of anti-fibrotic therapy. IFN exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities in target cells including antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti angiogenic and growth-inhibitory effects. The antiproliferative effects of IFN are the rational basis for their use in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. The food use of S.oleraceus is justified by the high content of vit.C, flavonoids, and phenolics. The previous studies discussed the antifibrotic effect of IFN and S.oleraceus individually on liver fibrosis but in this study, the combination treatment has been studied well in the induced liver fibrosis models. Using different immunoassays, Histopathology, colorimetric and PCR techniques the results obtained showed that TAA causes hepatic fibrosis by induction of free radical production and decrease cellular antioxidant stores. The different treatment ways including combination treatment group showed a significant inhibitory effect in targeting hepatic fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress, increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and by inhibiting HSCs inflammation, activation and proliferation through increasing the levels of anti-fibrotic co-transcription factor PPAR-γ and decrease the levels of the main HSCs fibrogenic cytokines TGFβ1 and PDGF-BB.

In conclusion, biochemical, molecular and histopathological findings demonstrated that the combination treatment improved the antifibrotic effect better than the individual one,  the prophylactic usage of  SE protected against hepatic fibrosis and  SE had no side effect.

Petr Čársky

J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Czech Republic

Title: Theory in service of nanochemistry induced by electron impact

Time : 17:40-18:05

Speaker
Biography:

Petr Čársky has completed his Ph.D. in 1968 from the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. He served two terms as the Director of Heyrovský Institute. Presently, he is continuing his work at Heyrovský Institute as a Senior Researcher. He has published more than 180 papers in reputed journals. He is a member of the International Academy of the Quantum Molecular Science and a WATOC board member and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of several reputed journals.

Abstract:

The aim of this presentation is to show the recent progress in applications of quantum chemistry and theory of electron scattering to the needs of nanofabrication of chips by deposition of metallic structures on the surface. Over the past decade, a new method called Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing has gained increasing attention as a fast and versatile lithography with sub-5 nm features. However, the advantages of FEBID, such as high spatial resolution and accessibility, are currently overset by insufficient control of the purity and shape of the desired end product. If control of the process is to be improved, it is necessary to understand the parameters that dominate electron-induced chemistry. Here comes the help from the side of theory. We can calculate the cross sections for dissociative electron attachment, i.e., the probabilities of metal-ligand bond fission on electron impact, and consequently to predict suitable precursors and optimum electron energies.  The calculations are based on the ab inito treatment of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for vibrationally inelastic scattering and a quantum-chemical approach for a direct evaluation of dissociative attachment by a local resonance model. Possible benefits for general quantum chemistry will also be noted: use of graphics processing units, use of hybrid Gaussian and plane-wave basis sets, and efficient evaluation of two-electron exchange integrals.